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Driven by efficiency, corporate interest, finance and governmental policies, the architectures of agriculture and horticulture, and the spatial organization of human and non-human labour are being reconceived. In the countryside, dairy and horticultural farmers oversee ever-growing automated operations through dashboards on desktop computers and smartphone apps. Cows and workers become data, and their bodies are managed as abstract components of a larger system, accessed from anywhere by logging on the cloud.


Dairy Farms

Stimulated by postwar agricultural policies, a Dutch landscape of small dairy farms gave way to an efficient, booming production machine relying on rationalisation and mechanization. Challenged by the European milk quota system in the 1980s, the sector’s focus shifted from expansion to achieving greater efficiency. Cutting costs yet increasing milk yields per cow was attained by concentrating in fewer, bigger farms and by integrating new breedings techniques and adopting new technologies, particularly the milking robot—a Dutch invention. Despite the recent abolition of quotas, high labour costs and new regulatory pressure for cleaner and sustainable production pushes farms to keep increasing their size and rely even more on automation technologies in order to remain competitive.


Horticulture is one of the top sectors in the Dutch economy, with more than a third of its production concentrated in one single cluster, Westland. Increasing labour costs, scarcity of qualified personnel, competition, and the impossibility of spatial growth are leading the sector to specialize and achieve higher productivity per square meter by means of automation and digitization of operations. While the number of horticultural businesses, total production area, and demand for labour have decreased since 2000, the average size of companies and their footprint keeps growing, resulting in larger greenhouses and informal processes of land consolidation.

Research Team

Research department, Het Nieuwe Instituut: Marina Otero Verzier, Marten Kuijpers, Ludo Groen, Emma Paola Flores Herrera & Chris Zogopoulos, TU Delft: Víctor Muñoz Sanz & Grace Abou Jaoudeh.


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Automated Landscapes and the Human Dream of Relentlessness

Behind the beauty and crudeness of automated landscapes, this report from the Netherlands reveals that human bodies are not absent at all in these centers of production, but instead adopt the uptime rhythm of automation. This article, written by Marten Kuijpers and Ludo Groen, accompanied with photographs by Johannes Schwartz, was published at Strelka Mag (03-03-2020).

Marina Otero Verzier & Marten Kuijpers
Víctor Muñoz Sanz (TU Delft); Marina Otero Verzier, Marten Kuijpers, Grace Abou Jaoudeh (Het Nieuwe Instituut)
Marina Otero Verzier, Marten Kuijpers, Ludo Groen, Ameneh Solati, Anastasia Kubrak & Klaas Kuitenbrouwer (Het Nieuwe Instituut); Merve Bedir, Jason Hilgefort, Junwen Wang & Lucy Xia (Future+ Aformal Academy), Víctor Muñoz Sanz
Víctor Muñoz Sanz & Grace Abou Jaoudeh (TU Delft); Marina Otero Verzier, Marten Kuijpers, Ludo Groen, Emma Paola Flores Herrera & Chris Zogopoulos (Het Nieuwe Instituut)
Marina Otero Verzier, Marten Kuijpers, Anastasia Kubrak & Ludo Groen (Het Nieuwe Instituut); Ippolito Pestellini Laparelli, Laurence Bolhaar, Aleksandar Joksimovic & Anton Anikeev (OMA); Kamil Dalkir & students (RCA)
Lichun Tseng
Design Trust Hong Kong, Consulate General of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in Guangzhou and Hong Kong

Automated Landscapes is a long-term collaborative research initiative on the implications of automation for the built environment, launched in 2017 by Het Nieuwe Instituut, and directed by its Research department.